Introduction and Methodology

2 Jul

Table of Contents, Glossary, Introduction and Methodology, Contextual Scene, Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Conclusion, APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, Bibliography and Other Sources



Illustration 1: Video still, Gudrun Bielz. The Arctificial Obsessive-Compulsive Project:

An Introduction (2007)

Video No. 2, 23’18”

Gudrun Bielz, The Arctificial Obsessive-Compulsive Project: An Introduction (2007), electronic PhD lecture given at the University of Reading, Department of Art.[1]


“I would like the work to be non-work. … It is my main concern to go beyond what I know and what I can know. The formal principles are understandable and understood. It is the unknown quantity from which and where I want to go. As a thing, an object, it accedes to its non-logical self. It is something, it is nothing” (Hesse 1968, in: Stiles and Selz 1996, p.594).

The artist Eva Hesse describes her journey from unknown into unknown territory. Her primary interest is “to go beyond what I know and what I can know.” This is also my concern. By undertaking this research, I have started from and entered new territory and literally developed the concept for a new territory.

My thesis both invents and examines what I have come to understand as a new psychological space. My own artwork deals with artistic and scientific concepts and cross-disciplinarity. A doctoral thesis is a useful format for researching my approach to practice and theory within the context of psychological space. The form itself has helped me to understand, analyse, and contextualise how I collect, learn, research and disseminate information, interconnect, produce, communicate, and play (describe, fill, enhance, manipulate, create) an artistic space. During this research I developed the concept of Arctificial Territory that was originally conceived as the Obsessive-Compulsive Arctificial Project.

Arctificial is a neologism that combines arctic and artificial. The former refers to arctic cold, the act of freezing one’s emotions as a form of self-defence or an inability to access or even have these emotions, and the latter to not natural.

I created the term “arctificial” to try to describe my understanding of the growth of an increasingly emotionally cold attitude in our world, which echoed some of the coping strategies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and which I linked to technological developments such as artificial life, specifically ideas of us developing a transhuman or superhuman.

Our emotions are often dulled through media overexposure, the anonymity of social media, lack of political engagement, and the dominance of screen-based technology over our lives. I notice that we often seem to display a type of emotional shut down, where we hibernate emotionally, protecting ourselves and ignoring or distancing ourselves from problems concerning refugees, disabled people, the unemployed, mental health, etc. if we are not directly affected.

I began to describe this attitude as arctificial. This state has elements of what I recognise as a coping strategy for people who have OCD, where we can shutdown, turn inwards, detach or use repetition, counting, etc. to cope with a world we may feel threatened by or that we cannot control.

This behaviour to gain control was also something I recognised in machines and the logic of programmes we design to make computers work effectively. We employ this same logic to make machines work better than humans, but we cannot programme the computer to “feel” or respond with emotions like humans (yet).

Arctificial is a complex set of thoughts frozen into one word. It goes beyond the obvious mix of arctic and artificial to try to discover a nuanced understanding of problematic attitudes and traits we use to survive with OCD or as a society in an era that is defined by war, economic greed, and technological developments.

Arctificial encompasses the negative coldness of society, but it also contains some warmth because within this frozen existence there is life. Arctificial is the recognition of something creative and powerful if only it could be recognised and harnessed. As in arctic temperatures, deep beneath the ice there are life forms, and there might even be empathic existence. All is not lost. This perceived strong disconnection from human empathy made me think of a new term for the epoch we live in. Arctificial looks to the future and contemplates when we finally create a transhuman or superhuman that could potentially make the human extinct. It may exist as perfection, but is that possible or desirable without our human warmth, irrationality, chaos, and fallibility? Arctificial sums up some of (but not only) these thoughts.

So I set out to explore arctificial scenarios, devising Arctificial Territory and the human, emotional, and erroneous warm qualities of the arctic (cold) and the artificial.

Arctificial Territory investigates and creatively explores: obsessive-compulsive disorder; psychological space; selected works by VALIE EXPORT, Steina Vasulka, and Park Chan-wook; a selection of my own artwork; concepts of future (trans- and posthuman) life by Ray Kurzweil, Steve Fuller, and others; models of consciousness; immortality and afterlife fantasies based on Hans Moravec‘s book, Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind (2000); and the philosophical, the idea of the other as “the stranger to ourselves” (Julia Kristeva, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jacques Lacan) and Emmanuel Levinas’ “the Other in the Same”.

I have chosen non-linear methods to underline my research objective that literary and theoretical texts, images, videos, the interactive online publication, the printed text, and the exhibition, Arctificial Pandemonium, are equally important and interlinked within my research. The key topics are discussed in separate chapters but perhaps inevitably come up in each of the chapters as they all are interwoven. I discuss this approach further in “Methodology”.

I have carefully selected the titles in this thesis. They describe literary or metaphorically the contents of each chapter and subchapter. I was brought up with French and German philosophy with its often very inventive and emotive yet precise and explanatory titling. This is part of my education and culture that surfaces in Obsessive-Compulsive Arctificial Life (OCAL). The titling both expresses OCAL’s state of mind and consolidates the topics in the following chapters and sections.

During the research process, a little voice, the voice of OCAL, an arctificial being and inhabitant of Arctificial Territory, has emerged and wanted to establish itself. This voice needs its own space. For the written manifestation of this voice, I use a different typeface (online: colour) in order to demonstrate its “otherness” in the text. This hybrid voice is also expressed in videos that are shown in my final exhibition. It appears interspersed in parts of this thesis and also through integrating videos and texts, theoretical research, and the expression of a hybrid inhabitant on the WordPress blog

Of great help to clarify some of my ideas were conversations with the philosophers Timothy Morton and Dan O’Hara, with Zero State (closed Facebook [FB] group), with members of the [singularity] email list @ (Ben Goertzel, Natasha Vita-More et al.) and The SENS Foundation: Aubrey de Grey (FB group), and in blogs on IEET (Institute for Ethics & Emerging Technologies) and other blogs[2]. Through these conversations I learned about ethical aspects of future life, developments in AGI, research on ageing, and concepts of immortality. With Morton and O’Hara I gained insight into aspects of personality disorders in the context of my research about OCD and psychological space.

The Austrian writer Rainer Maria Rilke’s poem, The Panther, describes the blurred vision that is caused through repetitive motion and the many bars that cover up a world that seems to have vanished. Working on this thesis alerted me to the particular mood invoked by this poem. The following verse is a metaphor for the artistic research process. Sometimes one can only see the bars and forget that there is a world behind them, a world to be explored that is bigger than immediate perception would allow for:

” His vision, from the constantly passing bars,

has grown so weary that it cannot hold

anything else. It seems to him there are

a thousand bars, and behind the bars no world.” (Rilke, 1997, verse 1).

Repetitive movements can be part of OCD. People create their own bars or are put behind bars like the panther in the poem. Not seeing what happens beyond bars, they move in circles and perceive and experience borders, limits, compulsions, obsessions, passions, learned behaviour, self-limiting fear, prescribed instructions and methods. While engaged in the research process, I sometimes felt like behind bars. I immersed myself in the research work, limiting myself to the topics but paradoxically also opening up to the world within. Not to become imprisoned in this world, I needed to do stuff that primarily seemed irrelevant to this thesis. I outline this in the following paragraph.

Throughout the research process I listened to music by Radiohead, Muse, The Mars Volta, and Booba, which made me dance as well as think about the emotional aspects of my art. This music also inhabits a psychological space. The French rapper Booba with his bad boy image has kept me sane. He uses repetition in text and tunes. Working on this thesis was made easier by listening and dancing to his music, not really understanding most of the texts. I also danced to Radiohead and their often dark and mystical music as well as to The Mars Volta’s mathematical psychic rock music, especially to “Asilos Magdalena”. This song is deeply romantic. Radiohead’s music refers to computational worlds and uses repetitive structures. Listening and dancing to this music worked for me as an antidote to the world of obsessive-compulsive life.

Short Interlude: A Tiny Jump into the Future Present

“It is no wonder that industrial capitalism has turned the earth into a dangerous desert, it does not really care, what comes through the factory door as long as it does generate more capital. Do we want to sustain a world based on a philosophy of grey goo?” (Morton 2010a)

Morton argues that we live in a world defined by a philosophy of catastrophic thinking. Grey goo is a metaphor for a nanotechnological Armageddon. His grey goo turns the earth (and life on it) into a desert, a harsh and unfriendly place. In the “philosophy of grey goo”, life has to adapt to the process of industrial capitalism that has turned into an autonomous dangerous machine.

Art and artists have become important players but also commodities in this bubble of science, economy, spirituality, and apocalyptic worldviews. Artists are allowed to be playful. They can throw a chair into space and see what happens to it in a non-gravity environment.[3] They can go to the Antarctic and record the world before the big ice melt[4]. They can create the term “useless technology”, as Steve Kurtz[5] calls technology that has been developed for bio warfare. They can become martyrs[6] in a mad world full of conspiracy theories and relentless spy stories. They can invent terms and create “pseudo-scientific” artistic research like Arctificial Territory that is populated by OCAL. Like the philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, Kristeva, Lacan, and others, they are allowed to use scientific terms, removed from their original context, and assemble them into a cascade of new significance. This is called recontextualising.

A few scientists believe that scientific terms should be strictly used within scientific settings. Even if the evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins[7] (2003a) and the scientists Alan Sokal and Jean Bricmont (2003) do not like this reallocating and reassembling of scientific terminology, I believe that – by recontextualising scientific terms – one recreates worlds that have become alienated, and one recycles “verbal garbage” to construct new fantastic realities. Following a circular structure, one can also produce new narratives and recontextualise everything. Dawkins published examples like the one below by Felix Guattari in “Postmodernism Disrobed” (2003a):

“The symmetry of scale, the transversality, the pathic non-discursive character of their expansion: all these dimensions remove us from the logic of the excluded middle and reinforce us in our dismissal of the ontological binarism we criticised previously” (Guattari 1995, p.50).

Clearly Dawkins does not value the text and refers to Guattari as “one of many fashionable French ‘intellectuals’” (Dawkins 2003a, p.47). He describes thinkers such as Guattari as “intellectual impostors with nothing to say” (2003a, p.47). However, against Dawkins I suggest that Guattari’s text has a poetic quality and creates new meaning. It resembles auto-poetry.[8] I do not agree with Dawkins’ attitude that scientific terms should only be used in strictly scientific contexts. I certainly will commit the crime of using scientific terms as metaphors in strictly non-scientific contexts within this thesis. This helps to emphasise the interconnectivity of terms and meanings, their flexibility in interpretation and contextual use, and allows for querying strictly defined terminology. The appropriation of these terms supports the creation of new connotations within this research.

The position of art and artist within the field of new technologies and science is prevalent throughout the whole project as I am a contemporary artist creating a PhD. Some of my videos were produced with the technical support of the Centre for Advanced Microscopy at the University of Reading. I am aware of Stephen Wilson’s (1996) statements about the artist as researcher and about various events within the sci-art sector (Wilson 2009)[9] that have created a new specialist form of artist, a hybrid, neither artist nor scientist, best described as hybrid artist; for instance, Eduardo Kac with his transgenic art and artists who work with or are funded by organisations like the Wellcome Trust and The Arts Catalyst. These hybrid artists have established themselves in institutions like MIT, ZKM, V2_[10], and others. All have become special agents in a technocratic world that outlines our future in posthuman or transhuman terms. Specialisation might be a reaction to information overflow in a seemingly fragmented world. Special agents and artists like Etoy[11], Stelarc[12] and Laura Beloff[13] have brought new significance to the artistic world. Stephen Wilson differentiates art and science from art and technology. I believe that this distinction applies especially to media art in the 1980s.[14]

“In the contemporary world, however, the relationship has become more complex with new technologies opening up unprecedented areas of scientific inquiry and science providing many ideas for new technologies. Artists have been much more involved with technology than science” (Wilson 2000).

Wilson’s statement brings in a common denominator, technology. Both science and art rely on new technology. This connects both disciplines and allows for a blurring. Art and science are interlinked and less alienated. Science fiction is another link between both subjects because fiction feeds into facts and facts can turn out as fictional.

Arctificial Territory is informed by the “dictate of technology”, the idea of a technological world where humans and machines are fused together in either superhuman or disembodied non-human futuristic life models. Scientific hypotheses, often displayed as facts, can be great fictional inventions that lead us into otherworldly places. Artistic models, often displayed as fiction, can be factual events that invent new realities. The boundaries are blurred. Arctificial Territory, however, is a space for art.

The exhibition, Arctificial Pandemonium[15], which is part of this PhD, consists of videos that can also be found within the written part (with links to Vimeo[16]) and in the online publication. I take images of an ant, the fingernail of an OC person, hair that actually is a feather, and a computer chip with an atomic microscope and create arctificial narratives with videos and computer generated voices.

In the research text OCAL deliberates over the research, reflecting the findings and trying to form its own identity. For OCAL’s expressions I use a different typeface in the printed thesis and a different colour in the online publication. This distinguishes visually between my voice and my conclusions and the emancipating voice of OCAL. It also allows for dissemination between and the fusion of creative and research text.

In this thesis I examine if there is a new and different psychological space for art, called Arctificial Territory, seemingly devoid of emotional space though not devoid of empathy. Whoever recognises that he or she can exist and work in this space belongs to a new hybrid artistic movement, I have called Arctificialism.

I asked the artist VALIE EXPORT how she might position herself within Arctificialism and produced a short video with her statement. This video is listed at the end of this thesis and is shown in the exhibition as part of my research.

Overall, this thesis is a work of science (artistic) fiction that feeds off science facts and fictions, artists’ works and philosophies. Some of the ideas might become factual in the near future or float in between fact and fiction with blurred boundaries, staying in this uncertainty until a new paradigm shift.[17]

Science creates fictions that are sold to us as real. Science is a form of art. It creates and mythologises. It imagines, and it tries to prove realities that are fictional and bound to our physicality and our dreams, to locations and environments, to conditions and mental states. Science facts create new fictions, and science fictions create new facts.

Research Question

My research proposes a new psychological artistic space which encompasses theories of consciousness, computing, OCD, afterlife fantasies, and philosophical and futuristic thoughts.

Ideas of this space are developed through my artwork, including a fictional life form in my text, and by the recognition by artists of its relevance to them.

I question whether this space begins to foster an art movement, a new -ism, which places and contextualises artists’ works, dreams, emotions, and thoughts.


Illustration 2: Gudrun Bielz, A strategy for an apparently simple life – OCAL (2011), Arctificiality at WordPress, screenshot


“A plateau is always in the middle, not at the beginning or the end. A rhizome is made of plateaus” (Deleuze and Guattari 2004, p.24).

This practice-based thesis concerns the creation of a new psychological space and consists of an exhibition and a text of theoretical research, literary works, images, videos, and links to music, also published as a webpage with hyperlinks. Users can add comments, ideas, and criticism. The aim is to inspire a creative process that continues to produce ideas, theories, texts, and visuals, accessible with no end point.

Non-linear methods, such as feedback loops and the rhizome, describe and inform my methodology. Everything is interconnected in a branch-like way, and information is fed back, hence creating new branches and information. Philosophy, artwork, literary text, and theoretical research – all are interwoven.

I introduce a quasi-circular or spiral structure into texts, videos, and other projects in this practice-based dissertation. This structure derives from the philosopher and mathematician Norbert Wiener’s idea of feedback loops describing the very nature of cybernetic systems discussed in his book, Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, first published in 1948 (1965, pp.95-115). Wiener shows that “information fed back to the control center tends to oppose the departure of the controlled from the controlling quantity, but it may depend in widely different ways on this departure” (Wiener 1965, p.97).

Everything is interconnected and fed back from one source to another. This is a truly non-linear system, though it implies some form of control function, as feedback information triggers an action that is connected to another point, consequently informing or initiating a new activity.

Deleuze and Guattari’s rhizome theory has similarities to Wiener’s feedback loops as well as to interconnective structures that are the essence of computer applications and the dissemination of information in systems and the WWW. “A rhizome has no beginning or end; it is always in the middle, between things” (Deleuze and Guattari 2004, p.25). I first came across this quote in Sadie Plant’s book, Zeros + Ones (1998), which led me to read Deleuze and Guattari’s A Thousand Plateaus (2004). Here the authors introduce the rhizome with its branching out and interrelating, non-linear ways that define rhizomatic structures.

“A rhizome ceaselessly establishes connections between semiotic chains, organizations of power, and circumstances relative to the arts, sciences, and social struggles” (Deleuze and Guattari 2004, p.8).

This assertion highlights ongoing interactions between processes of order, the creation of meaning and art, science, and society.

In my PhD I create new meaning by applying rhizomatic connectivity. Due to the nature of my research, the structure of my thesis has naturally become an interconnection between text, videos, blogs, research by other people, and questions asked to and by scientists and philosophers. As this is a dissertation, I have had to bring in a starting point in the form of an introduction as well as a finishing line in the form of a conclusion, but I also point out that there is no end to this research, only many new beginnings (questions). This creates a tension in my text between the demands of a PhD and the project itself informed by the rhizome. A skeleton with introduction, contextual settings, 5 chapters, and conclusion complies with a certain linearity that is broken through the correlation between texts and videos, between OCAL’s voice and theoretical survey.

In the sense of the rhizome, though, the research is always in the middle, not in the middle as the average but in the middle of a process, “the middle of things”, the middle of thoughts. It is always in between (Deleuze and Guattari 2004, p.25). I see the middle in Deleuze and Guattari’s sense as a process that never starts and finishes but is always in between questions and answers and constantly evolving. Even as one reads the findings, one creates one’s own fictional or information space additional to the conclusions of the researcher. The answers are a step, part of bigger processes that are part of even bigger processes; in a way, research processes are Russian doll systems. Research results can only be a stop in this middle, a series of punctuations in this process called “the middle of things”.

The process resembles an anarchistic methodology that does not exclude a method, as in the understanding of Paul Feyerabend[18] in Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge (2002):

“Science is an essentially anarchistic enterprise: theoretical anarchism is more humanitarian and more likely to encourage progress than its law-and-order alternatives” (Feyerabend 2002, p.9).

Feyerabend claims that only anarchistic methods (or “no methods” that also are methods) can provide something new and other than rationalism in knowledge (science) theory. “Theoretical anarchism is more humanitarian” means that theories should contradict bureaucratic machine structures, and “likely to encourage progress than its law and order alternatives” shows that Feyerabend does not believe in strictly rigorous linear methods. He maintains that he has written his book (“essay”) to demonstrate that “anarchism, while perhaps not the most attractive political philosophy, is certainly excellent medicine for epistemology” (2002, p.9). Feyerabend studied Dadaism and was influenced by what he called its style “adapted to the expression of thought as well as of emotion” (2002, p.265). He brings emotion into the scientific philosophical discourse that often emphasises rationality (thought) and dismisses irrational (emotional) processes.

Certainly his studies in theatre, the arts, astronomy and physics, culture and philosophy have informed his theory of methods, implying that a diverse and pluralistic system of methods (also allowing for emotions) rather than strictly empirical (rational) methods will create new knowledge.

Feyerabend is truly interdisciplinary. After WWII he wrote theatre plays and met Berthold Brecht. Later he studied physics and philosophy. Feyerabend was a philosopher of science; indeed, he was an artist and scientist, a philosopher, and a thinker of the new. His critique of methodologies in science does not exclude methodology or a method but refers to an anarchistic and artistic DADA-like approach. Such methodologies with their uncertainty and circumvention of empiricism can be found in: art theory and production, definitely the DADA movement, revolutionary developments, and quantum physics that defies empirical or asks for semi-empirical methods due to the nature of its unpredictability.

In his online lectures, the physicist and Stanford professor Leonard Susskind (2008) remarks that classical physics, the pre-modern physics of the 19th century, is all about determinism (certainty) while modern (quantum) physics refers to indeterminism and unpredictability (uncertainty). This signifies non-linear methodologies and structures that also characterise my way of thinking, making, researching, associating, and communicating.

Repetitions and rituals that are disguising fear and chaos inform obsessive-compulsive traits. Obsessive-compulsive can be seen as monistic, but it is only a ritual that conceals the chaos hidden behind these structures. Non-linear methods are not chaotic and not repetitive, so they allow for branching out, feeding back and forward, and communicating in a polydirectional way.

As an artist who works through interdisciplinarity, particularly an artist who writes a PhD, I deem a non-linear methodology as a necessity. Knowledge, various forms of art production, different disciplines flow into the research, form a network of information and new knowledge, allow connections of media and text, delink and link, and form new branches. As an artist I work like a fluid yet dense entity, digesting information, branching out to the other (new information, audiences, artists, other artwork), inhaling some of this and creating new connections, ideas, and works. In this PhD I also investigate how I work as a scholar and an artist. The artist Gudrun Bielz and the researcher Bielz work in similar ways. To expose this I have chosen concepts by Feyerabend, Wiener’s feedback loops, and Deleuze and Guattari’s rhizome for my methodology.

The rhizome in A Thousand Plateaus (2004) is a non-hierarchical and, in the sense of Feyerabend, anarchistic idea. It has no beginning and no end, it has no centre, and it is a pluralistic and networked model, a non-linear system. Rhizome, no method as a method (anarchistic or rhizome-like), and Wiener’s feedback loops are related structures.

Like Feyerabend I believe that methods cannot be monistic; they have to be non-linear and complex. So if a research method can be relativist and perhaps dissident, opening up the questions to invite further queries and allowing for comments and other contributions – an ever evolving process – then I will demonstrate this in this practice-based research.


The reader, the viewer, is guided through Arctificial Territory and ideas and models that have influenced this new space. Theories of consciousness, concepts of affective computing, definitions of OCD, afterlife fantasies, and philosophical thoughts are intermixed with OCAL’s own narrative (“We are OCAL and compulsively erroneous in text and life.”) that helps to create Arctificial Territory.

Some of this is speculative, some is erroneous, some might be truthful for a moment or for longer, some might hide truths, some is fiction, some science fiction, and some is factual.

Links and screenshots to blogs with scientists and philosophers can be found in Appendix B, some of these are active links within the electronically published thesis. I have danced to music and put these links into the chapters, so the reader can dance to this music, too. Joggling words out of my mind needs the shaking of limbs. This thesis needs embodiment and embodied action. Please link and listen to the music[19], look at the videos and blogs, and click on links where indicated. Please take the connection speed of your server into account when you are connecting to my thesis and the embedded links.

Read each chapter separately (by clicking on each chapter title in the online version) to make use of the footnote links. This dissertation is about Arctificial Territory in the making. The process happens in front of your eyes. By reading and looking you are making this new life possible.


Table of Contents, Glossary, Introduction and Methodology, Contextual Scene, Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Conclusion, APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, Bibliography and Other Sources

[1] All videos are discussed in “Chapter 5: Manifests and Mirrors (Artwork)”.

[2] These conversations can be found in Appendix B.

[3] Simon Faithfull, Escape Vehicle No 6, a project from earth into empty space, supported by The Arts Catalyst (Faithful 2004).

[4] Simon Faithfull, Ice Blink, a project in Antarctica, supported by The Arts Catalyst (Faithful 2004-06).

[5] Founding member of the Critical Art Ensemble. Founding member of the Critical Art Ensemble. There is a photo about the project Useless Technology (1994) in “Posters, pamphlets and artists books” on the webpage:

[6] Kurtz was originally under investigation under Section 175 of the US Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989 (USA). The charges were downgraded to “mail fraud” and “wire fraud”. In 2008 Kurz was cleared of all charges. In 2004 Buffalo police were convinced that Petri dishes and monitoring material for his art works were used for terrorist purposes (Critical Art Ensemble: Defense Fund 2009).

[7] Dawkins’ The Selfish Gene examines our biological, genetic disposition of egotism and altruism. Dawkins argues that “we, and all other animals, are machines created by our genes” (1989, p.2). I see Dawkins as a purist, who believes that scientific language should not be misappropriated, ignoring that even scientific terms are inventions and approximations and often not that linear and clear within strictly scientific contexts. Moravec discusses Dawkins’ concepts of biological life in his book, Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind (2000). I examine Moravec’s theories of immortal life in Chapter 4.

[8] Auto-poetry is computer-mediated and computer-generated poetry.

[9] There is extensive information about art projects and art as research on Wilson’s web site. Wilson (2009) has used his web site as research background for his books Information Arts (2002) and Art, +Science Now (2010).

[10] There are links to these art and science organisations as well as to artists in “Bibliography and Other Sources” at the end of this thesis.

[11] Etoy is a group of Swiss artists who create corporate sculptures. The American internet toy retailer eToys took them to court (because of copyright issues regarding the brand) but had to drop the case (Pinsent Masons 2000).

[12] Stelarc is a performance artist, best known for interfering with his body. He is a master of artistic body-enhancement.

[13] Laura Beloff is an artist who works with wearable technology and was a PhD student at the Planetarium Collegium, Plymouth University.

[14] The Austrian artist Franz Xaver interviewed me for the art and media magazine Die Versorgerin (2011) about my position as a media artist in the 1980s and my artistic development since then. I talked about my journey from using new technologies in the 80s (as a media artist) to becoming an artist who works with different media and interdisciplinarity, a hybrid artist.

[15] The exhibition, Arctificial Stuff (2015), at Schauraum, MuseumsQuartier Vienna, is a preview to this installation.

[16] My videos are on Vimeo:

[17] “Paradigm shift” is a scientific revolution, the radical change of a worldview, caused by eminent scientific developments. The philosopher Thomas Kuhn created the term and discussed paradigms and scientific revolutions in his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1996).

[18] Feyerabend was an American philosopher of science and professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. He was born In Vienna, Austria.

[19]For additional reading click the following link: (Bielz 2011c).





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